passage4注解:标题为红色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。?????????it is said that in england death is pressing难以忘却的,紧急的(本文意思), in canada inevitable and in california optional. small wonder【small wonder这不足为奇】. americans life expectancy【life expectancy预期寿命】 has nearly doubled over the past century. failing坏了的 hips髋骨?can be replaced, clinical临床的(本文意思),冷淡的?depression抑郁症 controlled, cataracts白内障 removed in a 30-minute surgical procedure. such advances offer the aging population【aging population老龄化人口】 a quality of life that was unimaginable when i entered medicine【entered medicine从医】 50 years ago. but not even a great health-care system can cure death-and our failure to【failure to未能去】?confront that reality now threatens this greatness of ours.
????????death is normal; we are genetically在基因上地?programmed按照特定的方式行事?to disintegrate瓦解 and perish消灭,毁灭, even under ideal conditions. we all understand that at some level, yet as medical consumers we treat death as a problem to be solved. shielded保护 by third-party payers【third-party payers第三方支付】 from the cost of our care, we demand everything that can possibly be done for us, even if its useless. the most obvious example is late-stage晚期的 cancer care治疗. physicians-frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient-too often offer aggressive大胆的 treatment far beyond what is scientifically justified.
????????in 1950, the us spent $12.7 billion on health care. in 2002, the cost will be $1,540 billion. anyone can see this trend趋势 is unsustainable. yet few seem willing to try to reverse扭转?it. some scholars conclude that a government with finite有限的?resources should simply stop paying for medical care that sustains life beyond a certain age-say 83 or so. former colorado governor richard lamm has been quoted as saying that the old and infirm体弱的 have a duty义务 to die and get out of the way【get out of the way让位】, so that younger, healthier people can realize their potential潜能.
????????i would not go that far【go that far极端】. energetic精力充沛的?people now routinely work through their 60s and beyond, and remain dazzlingly非常地(本文意思),耀眼地?productive. at 78, viacom chairman sumner redstonejokingly claims to be 53. supreme court justice sandra day o connor is in her 70s, and former surgeon general c. everett koop chairs担任主席?an internet start-up新兴公司?in his 80s. these leaders are living proof【living proof活生生的例子】 that prevention预防 works有效 and that we can manage the health problems that come naturally with age. as a mere 68-year-old,i wish to age as productively as they have.
????????yet there are limits to what a society can spend(资金)花费?in this pursuit. as a physician, i know the most costly and dramatic measures may be ineffective and painful.i also know that people in japan and sweden瑞典,?countries that spend far less on medical care, have achieved longer, healthier lives than we have. as a nation, we may be overfunding the quest for unlikely cures while underfunding research on humbler不起眼的 therapies疗法,治疗 that could improve peoples lives.
一、文章结构分析?
这是一篇探讨医疗上花费大量财力去延缓自然死亡是否值得的文章。作者首先从死亡的不可避免性入手,指出耗费大量财力去延缓自然死亡是不可取的,但同时作者亦指出歧视和放弃对老人的照顾也是不对的。最后他通过与其他国家的比较得出了一个解决办法:更多地研究提高人们生活质量的普通方法。
第一、二段:提出即使有再伟大的医疗卫生体系,死亡也是无法战胜的。但是我们现在却不能面对这个现实,其表现就是人们把正常的死亡当作问题来解决,在医疗方面不择手段。
第三、四段:指出由于政府用于医疗卫生的资金与日俱增,有人呼吁停止某一年龄以上人群的医疗费用。
最后,作者先通过举例说明老年人仍然可以保持创造力,对上面的观点进行反驳;接着呼吁社会应该把资金更多地投入到研究提高人们生活质量的平常方法上。
36.what is implied in the first sentence?
[a]americans are better prepared for death than other people.
[b]americans enjoy a higher life quality than ever before.
[c]americans are over-confident of their medical technology.
[d]americans take a vain pride in their long life expectancy.
36.文章第一句话暗示了什么?
【a】美国人在死亡面前比其他人更有准备。
【b】美国人享受的生活质量比从前更高。
【c】美国人对他们的医疗技术过于自信。
【d】美国人对他们较长的寿命感到洋洋得意。
37.the author uses the example of caner patients to show that.
[a]medical resources are often wasted
[b] docto
2003年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第四篇】 – 哔哩哔哩(2003年考研英语阅读答案)插图
rs are helpless against fatal diseases
[c]some treatments are too aggressive
[d] medical costs are becoming unaffordable
37.作者使用“癌症病人”的例子是为了表明。
【a】医疗资源经常被浪费
【b】医生对致命疾病束手无策
【c】有些治疗方案过于大
【d】医疗费正变得支付不起
38. the authors remark is one of.
[a] strong disapproval
[b] reserved consent
[c] slight contempt
[d] enthusiastic support
38.作者对理查德·拉姆的言论持有的态度是。
【a】强烈反对。
【b】有保留地赞同
【c】稍有蔑视
【d】热烈支持
39. in contras to the us, japan and sweden are funding their medical care.
[a] more flexibly
[b] more extravagantly
[c] more cautiously
[d] more reasonably
39.与美国相比,日本和瑞典对医疗卫生事业的资助。
【a】更灵活
【b】更奢侈
【c】更谨慎
【d】更合理
40. the text intends to express the idea that.
[a] medicine will further prolong peoples lives
[b] life beyond a certain limit is not worth living
[c] death should be accepted as a fact of life
[d] excessive demands increase the cost of health care
40.文章所要表达的观点是
【a】医学将进一步延长人们的生命
【b】超过了一定限度,生命就不值得延续
【c】死亡应该作为生命事实被人们接受
【d】过多的要求增加了医疗卫生的开支
二、核心词汇与超纲词汇?
(1)life expectancy=expectation of life 预期寿命
(2)failing(a.)有缺陷的;失败的;
如:failing health 健康衰弱,failing kidneys肾衰退,a failing business生意失败
(n.)失败,缺点,弱点,过时
(3)surgical(a.)外科的,外科医生的,手术上的(n.)外科病房,外科手术;
surgeon(n.)外科医生;
surgery(n.)外科,外科学;手术室,诊疗室
(4)disintegrate(v.)(使)分解;(使)碎裂;
integrate(v.)使成整体,结合
(5)shield(v.)(from)保护,防护(n.)保护物,护罩;盾,盾状物
(6)unsustainable(a.)不能证实的/支持的/成立的;
sustainable(a.)可以忍受的/支撑的;养得起的;
sustain(v.)支撑,维持,持续,经受,忍耐
(7)infirm(a.)弱的,不坚固的,柔弱的;firm(a.)结实的,坚硬的,坚定的,稳
固的
(8)overfunding(a.)对…提供资金过多;
underfunding(a.)对…提供资金不足;
前缀over-意为“太甚,过度”,
under-意为“少,不足”,
如:overpay多付(钱款),underpay不付足够的款
三、阅读答案:c a b d c
四、全文翻译:?
????????据说,在英国死亡迫在眉睫,在加拿大死亡不可避免,在加利福尼亚死亡可以选择。这种说法并不奇怪。在过去的一个世纪里,美国人的寿命几乎延长了一倍。髋骨不行了可以更换,临床的忧郁症得到了控制,白内障在30分钟手术中便可以切除。这些进步给老年人口带来的高质量生活在50年前我刚从事医学时是不可想象的。但是即使有一个伟大的医疗卫生体系,死亡也是无法战胜的一—而我们不能面对这个现实却正危及着我们这个时代的伟大。
????????死亡是正常现象;我们的基因决定我们即使在最理想的环境里也会解体和灭亡。我们所有人在某种程度上都懂得这一点,但是作为医疗消费者,我们却常将死亡视为一个问题来解决。由于医疗费用由第三方支付,我们常常要求用尽所有的医疗手段,即使它们不会有任何作用。最明显的例子是晚期癌症的治疗。医生由于不能治愈疾病,同时又担心病人失去希望,于是常常采用极端大胆的治疗方法,这些方法远远超出了科学能够认同的界限。
????????1950年,美国在医疗卫生方面的开支是127亿美元。2002年这项开支将达到15400亿。
任何人都明白这个趋势不可持续下去,但是很少有人愿意去扭转它。有些学者总结说,资金有限的政府应该停止支付医疗费用来延缓某一个年龄以上人群的寿命一—比如83岁左右。据说,科罗拉多州前州长理查德·拉姆曾经说,老年多病者“有义务死去和让位”,以让更年轻、更健康的人们去发挥他们的潜能。
????????我不会说得这么绝对,毕竟现在精力充沛的人们通常能工作到60岁,甚至更久,并仍然具有惊人的创造力。78岁的viacom公司总裁萨姆勒·雷斯顿开玩笑说他只有53岁。最高法院法官桑德拉·欧康奈70有余,前卫生局医务主任c·库普80来岁还出任了一个互联网公司的总裁。这些领导人就是活生生的证据,证明对疾病的防治是有意义的,证明我们能够对付年龄带来的健康问题。作为一名年仅68岁的人,我希望像他们一样在老龄阶段保持创造力。
????????然而在这样的追求中,一个社会能够承担的费用是有限的。作为一名医生,我深知最昂贵和最激进的手段也可能是无效的和痛苦的。我也深知在医疗开销少得多的日本和瑞典,人们获得了比我们更长的、更健康的寿命。作为一个国家,我们可能在寻求不可能奏效的治疗方法上花钱太多,而在研究能提高人们生活质量的更平常的方法上花钱太少。

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