2021年考研英语阅览真题(一) text 1——三刷的思路
一、为可以精确地定位疑问,数一数全文一共由几个期间构成,标上序号,全文有4段。
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二、因最终一题多问的是中心主旨,中心主旨在第一二段甚至在题干中可以呈现,有百分之8十的可以,若最终一题问的是段主旨,在第一段也可有迹可寻,因为整个文章是一体的:
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中心主旨题的标志mainly about /discuss;the best title;the purpose、the subject of
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25. which of the following would be the best title for the text?
a. who are to blame for the strikes?
b. constant complaining doesn’t work不断诉苦没用
c. can nationalisation bring hope?
d. ever-rising fares aren’t ?sustainable
以下哪一项将是文本的最佳标题
a.谁要为停工担任?
b.不断诉苦没用。
c.国有化能带来期望吗?
d.添加费用是不可以持续的。
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答案可所以d,政治正确,为选票,西方的专家凑趣民众,一切的言辞政治上有必要正确,选民爱听啥,他说啥。
如(2014年)25. to which of the following would the author most probably agree?
?[a] unemployment benefits should not be made conditional.
?[b] the british welfare system indulges jobseekers’ laziness.
?[c] the jobseekers’ allowance has met their actual needs.
?[d] osborne’s reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment.
作者最有可以附和下面哪一项?
a. 赋闲救助金不大约有附加条件。
b. 英国福利准则会滋长求职者的慵懒。
c.求职者的补助满足了他们的实践需要。
d. 奥斯本的变革将会降低赋闲的风险。
选民爱听:a赋闲救助金不大约有附加条件。a是答案。
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【分析】一段①句①how can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail?passenger?fares?列车营运商如何能为铁路客运票价的再次上涨辩解?文章最初反问,标明作者的不满。后边一分为二地分析。
二段①successive?governments have permitted such increases on the grounds?that the cost of investing in?and running the rail network should be borne by those?who use it, rather than the general taxpayer.政府附和涨价;
三段最初的①however,是转机,不能涨价。答案是d.
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本题型解法:四加一
1、开宗明义:文章的中心一般在一段,有百分之8十的可以;抛砖引玉时:中心在第一段的段尾与第二段的段首句。
2、用牵线搭桥的办法,第一段+各段的中心句(首句)+最终一段的主旨句。
3、最终一段,看看是不是变换论题了。
4、研讨性文章,文章多呈现 study/ research,而且前几段都在讲研讨的目标/进程或差错观念,文章是分总规划,主旨在最终:
a、倒数第二段第一句
b、最终一段第一句和最终句,最佳能找到 found that/ concluded that/ make a assertion等等标志词。
加一:看看在题干中是不是现已泄露隐秘。读?牡捞庵兄馗吹拇驶蛐砭褪侵行闹髦嫉氖滓谌荨S商飧煽梢钥闯稣馄恼碌闹行闹髦肌?br>
?
三、听懂人话(看看题干,审题,看出题教师问了你啥?文章的中心是啥,规划是啥?方向是啥,重复说到的是要点。)
21、the author holds that this year’s increase in rail passengers fares ______.(观念情绪)
作者认为,本年铁路乘客票价的上涨(that引导宾语从句,从句中缺谓语do)
22、the stockbroker?in paragraph 2 is used to stand for?______.(指代)
第2段中的“stockbroker”代表?______.(当事人)
23、it is indicated in paragraph 3?that train operators?______.(paragraph 3中心,indicate)
第3段指出列车运营者
24、if unable to?calm down passengers, the railways may have to face _____.
假定无法抚慰乘客,铁路可以不得不面临(have to(不得不),成果严峻)
25、which of the following would be the best title for the text?(中心主旨)
以下哪一项将是文本的最佳标题
?
22、23别离对应的是第三、第四段。?牡捞獗鹄攵杂λ母銎诩洹?br>
题干中重要信息:increase in rail passengers fares(铁路乘客票价的上涨)、train operators(列车运营者)、if unable to?calm down passengers(假定无法抚慰乘客)。
这篇文章大约是说票价涨了,运营商效能不好,乘客不高兴,成果很严峻。
这篇文章规划:提出疑问——分析疑问——处置疑问。
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四、顺藤摸瓜,根据中心:顺藤是顺着题干这根藤,摸到答案。也就是说:问啥答啥。根据题干的具体情况和提示信息,使用不一样的解题办法回到原文逐个寻找每一道题的精确答案信息来历或根据。答案有必要有根据。
21. the author holds that this year’s increase in rail passengers fares ______.
a. will ease train operators’ burden
b. has kept pace with inflation
c. is a big surprise to commuters
d. remains an unreasonable measure
作者认为,本年铁路乘客票价的上涨______.
a..将会减轻列车运营商的担负吗
b.跟上了通货胀大的脚步
c.这对通勤者来说是一个很大的惊喜吗
d.仍然是一种不合理的办法
?
题型:由hold可知本题是
观念情绪:直接找到的纷歧之定是对的,与中心共同中心是“添加费用是不可以持续的”。答案可以在:d. remains an unreasonable measure。unreasonable中un=not
?
【题干要害信息】increase、rail passengers fares
【解析】首要回到一段①句①how can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail?passenger?fares?列车营运商如何能为铁路客运票价的再次上涨辩解?文章最初反问,标明作者的不满。②句grimly(厌烦地)又标明方向。③句从 but it is still well above the official consumer price index (cpi) measure of inflation中止定了答案是:d. remains an unreasonable measure是一种不合理的办法,是负面的。
答案d是对③句的同义转述。
《葵花宝典》:
推理判别:直接找到的纷歧之定是对的,与中心共同。
1、第一句,段主旨;2、中心转机。3、最终一句,归纳总结。4、下一段第一句。
在but标明转机时,答案一般在but后。但要具体分析,忌讳刻舟求剑.2021年的text1第21题答案在yet前,这就是出题人的思路,考的是内容而非方法。
答案的次序:中心>段主旨内容>方法
细节题的办法:定位、替换、打扫。题干+正确项是对原文的同义改写,留心同义替换。在偏重句、冒号后、指代词,比照级一般是出答案的当地。
你可以看不理解原文,没关系,掌控答案的次序:中心>段主旨内容>方法,必定跟中心老迈走。
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观念情绪题问的是中心词性质、特征,是备选答案中心词的定语,an unreasonable是红花词。
(2021)24. one problem with the precheck program is???????? .
  [a] a dramatic reduction of its scale ????????[b] its wrongly-directed implementation
  [c] the government’s reluctance to back it ?[d] an unreasonable price for enrollment
  24. 预检项目存在的一个疑问是??????? 。
[a] 规划大高低削减[b] 导向差错的施行[c] 政府不愿对其供给撑持[d] 不合理的注册费用。答案是d. an unreasonable price.
【1段】①how can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail?passenger?fares? ②it has become a grimly?reliable?annual ritual: every january the cost of travelling by train rises, imposing a significant?extra burden on those who have no option but to use the rail network to get to work?or otherwise. ③this year’s rise, an average of 2.7 percent, may be a fraction?lower than last year’s,?but?it is still well above?the official consumer price index (cpi) measure?of inflation.
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列车营运商如何能为铁路客运票价的再次上涨辩解?这现已变成一种多年来令人厌烦地老规则:每年1月,乘火车旅行的本钱都在上升,敲那些别无选择、只能运用铁路网去作业或从事其他作业的人竹杆。本年的均匀涨幅为2.7%,可以比上一年低了一点点,但仍远高于官方的花费者物价指数(cpi)的通胀衡量标准.
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【生词助记】
★justify [?d??st?fa?] 证明…是合理的(just正确,;-ify……化)
reliable [r??la??bl] adj.可信赖的(li绑缚,联合,捆绑+able……的;)(li=tie,bind,)
ritual [?r?t?u?l]n.(宗教等的)典礼; 例行公务,老规则
impose…on?
?(to force sb/sth to have to deal with sth that is difficult or unpleasant 迫使;把…强加于)
fraction [?fr?k?n]n.[数]分数; 一小有些(frac=break,b,p, f通假)
inflation?[?n?fle??n] n.胀大; 通货胀大;(in- ,b,p, f通假)
inflationary [?n?fle???nri] adj.通货胀大的; 通货胀大倾向的
deflation[?di:?fle??n]n.通货紧缩
inflate [?n?fle?t]使充气(于轮胎、气球等); (使)胀大; (使)通货胀大; 物价上涨;
?(in=into; flat=blow);flag[fl?ɡ] n.旗(红旗由风而飘) banner方针明标志性的旗号
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22. the stockbroker in paragraph 2 is used to stand for ______.
a. car drivers
b. rail travelers
c. local investors
d. ordinary taxpayers
第2段中的stockbroker用来代表______.
a.小车司机
b.铁路乘客
c.当地出资者
d.一般交税人
题型:词意句意题
【解析】②句中stockbroker是比照①句中those?who use it,是例子。段主旨①successive?governments have permitted such increases on the grounds?that the cost of investing in?and running the rail network should be borne by those?who use it, rather than the general taxpayer.①历届政府都答应这种添加,理由是出资和运营铁路网的费用应由运用铁路网的人而不是一般交税人承担。费用应由运用铁路网的人,who use it= passenger;
考的是段主旨,从逻辑上分析,②句?should a car-driving pensioner from lincolnshire have to subsidise the daily?commute?of a stockbroker?from surrey?中stockbroker=passenger。答案:b. rail travelers.
词意句意题的解办法:
1、一般的词意题考是生词,生词意思的答案呈如今本语句及前后句中。
用夹的办法:
1、先定位。
2、用单词地址句去夹。
3、看前后句的逻辑去推。
4、假定所考的单词是标明文章行文方向的,用中心去推。
中心>段主旨内容>方法。比方:
(2016text1)22. the phrase “impinging on” (para. 2) is closest in meaning to(词意推理)
a. indicating the state of. b. heightening the value of. c. losing faith in. d. doing harm to.
文中“ impinging on”(第二段第二行)的意思最接近于
a.闪现……的状况
b.前进……的价值
c.对…失掉决心
d.对……构成损害
查询短语地址句(第二段②句)指出,法国新出台的规则意在标明“美不该由…究竟安康的表面来界定”,且根据上文(第一段及第二段①句):规则意在叫停时髦业界说的“极瘦为美”,第二段则是在介绍规则的“活泼动机( uplifting motives)”可见,契合辞意的只需[d]与中心共同。
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5、假定是比照难的词,可用词根词缀去分析.但词意也要与中心共同的。比方:
(2013.text1) 23.the word “indictment” (para. 2) is closest in meaning to
[a] accusation.[b] enthusiasm. [c] indifference.[d] tolerance.
单词“indictment”(第二段,第三行)的意思最接近:
词意题不是平白无故地问你,它是与中心共同。中心是对时髦业的批判,indictment,望文生义,in=into、 dict=to say、 -ment后缀,indictment的意思是:进入说。只需[a] accusation与说有关。ac=to;偏重,caus=reason,问为啥,accusation(责备)与中心共同。
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【2段】①successive?governments have permitted such increases on the grounds?that the cost of investing in?and running the rail network should be borne by those?who use it, rather than the general taxpayer. ②why, the argument goes,?should a car-driving pensioner from lincolnshire have to subsidise the daily?commute?of a stockbroker?from surrey? ③equally, there is a sense (有人认为)that the travails of commuters in the south east, many of whom will face among the biggest rises, have received too much attention compared to those who must endure the relatively poor infrastructure?of the midlands and the north.
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历届政府都答应这种添加,理由是出资和运营铁路网的费用应由运用铁路网的人而不是一般交税人承担。 为啥,这一观念认为,一个来自林肯郡的轿车司机大约补助萨里的股市生意人的每日通勤? 相同,我们感到,与那些有必要忍耐中部和北部基础设备相对较差的人比较,东南部通勤者的苦楚遭到了太多的重视,其间中部和北部许多人将面临最大的困难。
【生词助记】
词根:cess=go,标明
successive [s?k?ses?v]adj.接连的,相继的
on the grounds因为…的缘由
invest?in在…上出资 (in进+vest衣裳→把衣裳中的钱放入作业中)
investment[?n?vestm?nt]n.出资; 出资额
investigation[?n?vest??ɡe??n]n.查询; 学术(2014年考研阅览text4)
redundancy [r??d?nd?nsi] 过多,过剩; 冗长(re再+dund波涛(相声,海边波涛之音)-ancy表名词)
?commute[k??mju?t]上下班旅程;(com- . )
infrastructure [??nfr?str?kt??(r)] n.基础设备; 基础缔造;(infra鄙人)
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23. it is indicated in paragraph 3 that?train operators
?
a. are offering compensation to commuters
b. are trying to repair relations with the unions
c. have failed to provide an adequate service
d. have suffered huge losses owing to the strikes
第3段标明列车运营者将______.。
a.为乘客供给抵偿金
b.在批改与工会的联络
c.不能供给满足的效能
d.由停工遭受无量丢掉
题型:由indicated可知本题是推理判别题。
【题干要害信息】that引导的主语从句中,无do sth、?train operators
【解析】按揣度题的办法:第一句,中心转机,最终一句,及下一段的第一句。考的是归纳本段的中心。
办法一、最初的①however,是转机,是文章逻辑规划中的“转”,②it is all very well train operators?trumpeting?the improvements they are making to the network, but?passengers should be able to expect a basic level of service for the substantial sums they are now paying to travel. 火车运营商都极好地宣传他们对网络所做的改进,但乘客大约可以期望他们如今要付出的许多费用抵达根柢的效能水平。是虚拟句,实际上火车运营商不能供给满足的效能,答案是c.
最终一句可以出答案:④however, there is a strong case that those who have been worst affected by industrial action should receive?compensation?for the disruption?they have suffered.可是,有一个诉讼:受劳工行为(停工)影响最严峻的人大约得到应有的抵偿,是虚拟句,实际上没有得到应有的抵偿。a. are offering compensation to commuters,但a用的是如今进行时,时态不对。
办法二、从第四段第一句,①the government has pledged to change the law to introduce a minimum service requirement so that, even when strikes occur, services can continue to operate. 政府已承诺将批改法令,引入最低效能需求,即便发生停工,事务不能中止。是对第三的承段接结,阐明列车运营者中止了通职事务,不得不立法保证。
答案是c. have failed to provide an adequate service
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【3段】①however, over the past 12 months, those commuters have also experienced some of the worst rail strikes in years. ②it is all very well train operators?trumpeting?the improvements they are making to the network, but?passengers should be able to expect a basic level of service for the substantial sums they are now paying to travel. ③the responsibility for the latest wave of strikes rests on the unions.?④however, there is a strong case that?those?who have been worst affected by industrial action should?receive?compensation?for the disruption?they have suffered.
?
可是,在曩昔的12个月里,这些通勤者也阅历了几年来最严峻的铁路停工。 火车运营商都极好地宣传他们对网络所做的改进,但乘客大约可以期望他们如今要付出的许多费用抵达根柢的效能水平。迩来一轮停工的责任在于工会。 可是,有一个诉讼:受劳工行为(停工)影响最严峻的人大约得到应有的抵偿。
【生词助记】
suspend[s??spend] 暂停; 推迟; 挂; 悬(sus=under; pend,pens=to hang, to weigh许多用杆秤一挂便知其分量)
expend,ex=out花费; 耗尽; 用光;
suffer [?s?f?(r)] vi.遭受痛苦(suf+fer 带)(带到下面去→遭受痛苦)
suffer from患(某种病),受(某种病痛)浪费; 因…而受罚
?
24. if unable?to calm down passengers, the railways may have to face ______.
a. the loss of investment
b. the collapse of operations
c. a red
2021年考研英语阅览真题(一)Text1——三刷的思路(2021年考研英语一)插图
uction of revenue
d. a change of ownership(私有变公有)
假定无法抚慰乘客,铁路可以不得不面临
a.对出资的丢掉
b.行为的溃散
c.岁收削减
d.一切权的改动
细节题:1、定位;2、分析、3、打扫。不要忘掉,中心抉择细节。
根据if unable?to calm down passengers定位在四段④句,the threat of nationalisation?may have been seen off for now, but?it?will return with a vengeance?if the?justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order.
?if the?justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order= if unable?to calm down passengers。
?it指的是the threat of nationalisation,will return是谓语,?with a vengeance强烈地,极度地;状语;?if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order是条件从句;in short order马上,状语。
?
【4段】①the government has pledged to change the law to introduce a minimum service requirement so that, even when strikes occur, services can continue to operate. ② this should form part of a wider package of measures to address?the long-running problems on britain’s railways. ③yes, more investment is needed,?but passengers will not be willing to pay more indefinitely if they must also endure cramped, unreliable services, punctuated (分词作定语)by regular chaos when?timetables are changed, or planned maintenance is managed incompetently. ④the threat of nationalisation?may have been seen off(清除) for now, but?it?will return with a vengeance(复仇)?if the?justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order.
?
?it指的是the threat of nationalisation,will return是谓语,?with a vengeance强烈地,极度地;状语;?if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order是条件从句;in short order马上,状语。
?
政府已承诺将批改法令,引入最低效能需求,即便发生停工,事务不能中止。这大约变成处置英国铁路上长时刻存在的疑问的更广泛的一揽子办法的一有些。是的,这需要更多的出资,但假定乘客也有必要忍耐拥堵、不可以靠的效能,假守时刻表改动,或方案维护打点不善,他们就不愿意付出更多的费用。铁路国有化的挟制当前可以现已被消除了,但假定乘客的合理愤恨不能很快得处处置,它将会马上收回国有。
a wider package of measures一揽子办法
be off脱离,撤消
address [??dres] v. 处置、寄给; 演说; 向…说话; 称号; 处置
how to?address?this issue.?如何处置这个疑问
?(2014年考研阅览text4)regrettably, however, the reports failure to address the true nature of the crisis facing liberal education may cause more harm than good.?
address指出
怅惘的是,该陈述未能指出人文教育所面临的危机本质,这可以会致使更多损害而不是优点.
government of the people, by the people ,for the people shall not perish from the earth.(abraham lincoln)——gettysburg address.《 盖茨堡讲演》
民权、民治、民有政府绝不会消除。
vengeance[?vend??ns] n.报仇,复仇(venge=punish,标明)
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政府已承诺将批改法令,引入最低效能需求,即便发生停工,事务不能中止。这大约变成处置英国铁路上长时刻存在的疑问的更广泛的一揽子办法的一有些。是的,这需要更多的出资,但假定乘客也有必要忍耐拥堵、不可以靠的效能,假守时刻表改动,或方案维护打点不善,他们就不愿意付出更多的费用。铁路国有化的挟制当前可以现已被消除了,但假定乘客的合理愤恨不能很快得处处置,它将会马上收回国有。
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